**A printable PDF of this procedure can be downloaded here:**
As any engine runs, there are gases from the top of the cylinders that escape past the piston rings and into the crankcase system. These gases are illegal in most countries to vent into the atmosphere. Therefore, some kind of crankcase ventilation system must be designed for all cars. Volvo's is one of the more complicated systems, and over time they inevitably clog up and stop functioning correctly. The most common symptoms of a clogged PCV system are oil being unexplainably blown all over your engine (mainly under the spark plug cover), smoke or positive pressure up the oil dipstick after the engine has been running for 10+ minutes, horribly noxious odors coming through your air vents when stopped, or blown engine seals. If it's gotten bad, you may notice smoke coming out of your exhaust at all times.
This tutorial will help you clean the PCV system on your 1993-2000 5-cylinder Volvo engine. Keep in mind that this is focused on a later-generation Turbo model (I have a 1998 S70 T5), there will be some differences between each year and depending whether yours is a N/A or earlier model. P.S. You can click any of the pictures in this topic for a larger view.
If you own a turbo, it is a good idea to clean the PTC nipple periodically every 40-50K miles or so (see below), or get rid of the flame trap if your N/A car still has it installed.
One of the typical signs of a clogged PCV system
Some introductory notes: Before you even start this job, make sure you've got all the tools you'll need together, especially if it's your only car. I found a 1/4" socket and extension bar (and a U-joint), along with all the metric sockets, to be the most helpful in this job. I have a $15 Companion car kit I bought at Walmart that was actually great for the task. Get a pair of long needle-nose pliers if you don't have any, they are quite a life-saver if you drop things. A magnetic or claw-arm grabber would not be a bad idea at all. You'll also need a couple Torx sizes (T-20 and T-25), one of the screwdrivers with multiple bits would be just fine for this.
For the 12mm bolts underneath, you'll need a 3/8" wrench, 2 long extensions, and 2 U-joints to reach the nearly impossible bolts underneath.
I'd go ahead and get a few extra small clamps from what FCP or IPD sent you with the kit just in case you knock anything else off. You can always return unused parts.
**Many people (myself included) have found that the URO parts put in kits by IPD/FCP Groton are absolute garbage. Please, save yourself the hassle of having to do it again in 2 years and buy OEM Volvo parts that will stand up.
Make sure you've got your radio code before you unhook the battery. Driving along without a radio can be quite lonely.
Step 1:Drive your car up on ramps (I highly recommend ramps rather than jack stands). You'll need the front to be elevated to reach the lower manifold bolts.
Step 2: Start removing components. I disconnected my battery and removed it from the car for extra space (negative cable first), then the 3 hoses and electrical connector from the back of my air box. Your car may be different here, I have a SAS injection pump, and on non-turbo models, there are two vacuum hoses on the back of the air box. Make note of the orientation of these, they control the air box thermostat flap. If you have never removed the air box before, just disconnect the hoses (two torx screws hold the MAF sensor to the box, the other two pop right off), grab the airbox and shove it towards the engine. This will let go of the clamp holding it to the fender, and then you can lift it right out.
You'll also need to remove these two turbo hoses if your car is a turbo model. The front one connects to the underside of the idle control valve (silver cylinder). I removed this hose and the idle control valve to clean it as well - you can spray carb cleaner straight through it and it will do a good job. The original Volvo hoses have 7 mm clamps on them, most of which can be gotten to with the small socket wrench. I find it easiest just to remove the hoses and leave the clamps on the ends so you know where they go later. I had to take a small 7 mm wrench to the back one by the turbo, because there is no room for anything else.
Now would be an excellent time to remove the throttle body and clean it if you have a throttle body gasket. There are several 10mm bolts holding it in. If you don't have one, just hold open the throttle and douse the inside with some carb cleaner and let it run back out.
Step 3: Next, remove the idle control valve and electrical connector. The valve is held into place by the clips on the hoses and a rubber grommet on the bottom that simply clips into the mounting bracket. Be careful with the top hose - I broke mine in half because it was so brittle. The clips will come off with a good twist around the middle part of the clip. There is probably a better way to do it without ruining the clip, but I hate those kind of clamps. You can replace them later with the screw-type.
Next, disconnect the EVAP hose running into the engine block. After the white one-way valve will do just fine; the rest can stay connected. The vacuum tree hoses should be disconnected as well - my S70 only has one; those of you with 850's may have 2 or 3 here depending on the year of your car.
Step 4: Now, it's time to relieve the fuel pressure. If your car has been off for a while since driving it onto the ramps, you won't have much fuel pressure, just a couple spurts and some dribbles. I use a small bathroom Dixie cup and the end of a flathead screwdriver. Undo the blue cap at the end of the fuel rail, and press on the valve until all fuel flow stops. Then replace the blue cap so you don't lose it.
At this point, you can unbolt the fuel rail (I believe it was a 17mm open-end wrench, but an adjustable will work just fine. The top portion of the silver cover across the fuel rail simply unsnaps and can be set aside.
Bend the fuel line slightly up and out of the way so you can remove the manifold. You will also need to remove the fuel return line from its connection at the engine. Unscrew the left fuel rail bolt (10 mm) and bend the fuel return line up and out of your way. Replace the 10mm bolt.
You can now remove the spark plug cover from the top of the engine and set it aside (7 T-25 Torx screws).
Remove the PCV hose from the top of the engine (twist the clamp off, then pull the hose straight up).
Step 5: You can now start un-bolting the intake manifold. There are two 12mm bolts under the car supporting the intake manifold. One is attached to the dip-stick, and fairly easy to get to with a 3/8" wrench, 12mm socket, 1 u-joint, and an extension. Crawl under the car, insert the wrench, and work it up into the engine bay. I found a piece of duct tape around the U-joint to be quite helpful for keeping it from flopping around trying to access the bolt.
The other one is quite hard. I had to use 2 U-joints, 2 extensions, and the socket wrench to get to this one. It took me about 30 minutes to work this bolt out. People claim that it is much easier to get to these if you remove the fan assembly from the radiator. I didn't try this myself, but it is deifnately worth it if it makes getting to these bolts easier for you. Look behind the steering rack and peer up into the depths of the engine, and you should see the bolt that comes out. Sorry, no pictures, couldn't get a good shot of either of these from under the car. Feel around with your hands up top, and you will be able to feel them under it. A better way would be to get a 12mm actual wrench, and take the closed end to it under the manifold. Coincidentally, this happened to be one of the few missing from my toolbox, so I had to have at it the hard way.
This will keep you from feeling like an idiot and doing this when you can't figure out why it's not coming out
Now, you can start un-doing the 10mm intake bolts. Start with the lower 4 first, but do NOT remove them. Simply loosen them a couple turns - you will need the U-joint for the left-most and right-most bolts. I found removing the upper radiator hose and pinching off the expansion tank line with some locking pliers made this much easier, as well as unbolting the throttle assembly from the right side (re-attach the throttle assembly before moving the manifold). Stick a bucket or drain pan under the car to catch the antifreeze. After you get the lower left bolt loose, you can replace the radiator hose to avoid more spillage, just don't clamp it down again.
You will be able to reach the top 3 bolts with simply the socket and 10mm extension - grab the bolts as they come loose with pliers from the top to avoid dropping them into the bowels of the engine like I did.
Step 6:The manifold should now be loose. Pull it straight up, and swing it up to the right. There is a small vacuum elbow attached to the left side of the manifold - just pull it off. The loose hose will fit right through the opening it's stuck through. I wedged an old board under it to keep it up. Shove rags or paper towels in the intake holes to prevent anything from getting into the inside of the engine. You can now see the oil separator and all attached hoses.
You should now be able to pull off all the hoses (some of mine just snapped right in two) and remove the oil separator. I honestly have no idea how to get to the lower left one, I ended up taking out the right one and got annoyed trying to access the lower bolt and took a crowbar to it, and it came right out.
Step 7: At this point, you should thoroughly scrape out both of the lower passages from the oil separator box into the engine - they wil probably be full of crud. I used a small screwdriver and some pipe cleaners to scrape away at them. The bottom one makes a sharp right-angle turn into the oil pan, so be sure to clean out that small turn in the pipe. Next, pull off all old hoses from the oil seperator, install the new lower fitting, crankcase hose to the right side (clip it to the right side first, then the box). At this point, I screwed the box into the engine. Then I reconnected the top two hoses. The big curvey one that you've got with the kit runs back to the PTC nipple at the turbo - pull out the old one entirely, and then try to work the new one in where it was. It's very hard - don't worry if you tear the rubber along the way, it's just a protector. Make sure you are able to connect it at both ends.
Step 8:At this point, you can pull out the lower 4 screws that you haven't removed yet. Pull off the old gasket, and clean the surfaces on both the intake manifold and engine block with a wet, clean rag. Then dry them down thoroughly. Go wash all the grime and dirt off your hands - having a good seal is important on this thing. Now you can place the new intake gasket on the engine, and re-thread the lower 4 screws, leaving plenty of room for you to hang the intake manifold back on them. Push the gasket with your CLEAN hands up against the engine.
Step 9:Now you can lower the intake manifold back down. As you come down with it, hold it slightly to the right and re-connect the small vacuum line fitting at the left side of it. It's extremely helpful to have someone help you do this part - all they have to do is hold it for you. Stick the hose from the oil seperator through the 2nd hole (between ports 2 & 3) in the manifold.
Once you've got that securely attached, set the manifold back on the mounting screws (again, helpful if someone can hold it for you). Put in the left and right upper bolts, and then begin tightening the lower ones (you may have to remove the coolant hose and throttle bracket again), insert the middle upper one, and then tighten them all down.
Hopefully you can do this without dropping screws about 12 times like I did and having to take the manifold off again - this became quite a frustrating process, and I eventually ended up losing 1 screw and had to run to the hardware store to find a replacement. You would not BELIEVE how hard it is to find an M7 screw at an auto parts store.
Step 10: From here, you can reattach the 2 12mm bolts from below. The oil dipstick one can be got to in the same way as before, and for the back mounting bracket, feel around with your hand and thread the screw in. Then I took the 12mm socket in my hand and tightened the bolt as much as I could by hand without trying to get the wrench in there again. It's good enough for me. Again, if you've got a 12mm open-end wrench, you'll be able to get a better angle on it. Clamp down the hose from the oil separator to the top of the engine block, and from here you can begin reinstalling the parts that you removed to access the manifold. Bend the fuel lines back and re-attach them securely to their perspective places. Make sure you re-connect the EVAP system hoses to the purge valve and the intake manifold.
TIGHTEN DOWN YOUR HOSES FIRMLY.Yes, it's a pain, but I blew off a turbo hose, and the throttle body hose after putting my car back together, and it took me a while to figure that last one out.
Wait, hold on there cowboy! You're not done yet! Before you install the airbox or battery again, you need to clean the PTC nipple at the turbo intake hose.
Step 11: Remove the turbo hose. The clamp is an enormous pain to get to, especially if you have the stupid SAS valve in the way. I can't get a good picture of the screw, but it is right in between the SAS valve and the wastegate actuator on my car. I used 2 extensions and a 7 mm socket on my tiny wrench, and it worked pretty good. I had to jump on top and lay over the top of the engine in order to get to the clamp at all - I'm too short to reach it from the ground
Once you get that undone, undo the hoses at the PTC connection and the electrical connector. Work the hose out, and you can now see how clogged it is. My camera died at this point into the procedure. You can pull straight up on the PTC nipple, and it will pop out of the hose. Don't apply too much pressure, or you'll break the O-ring or the plastic hose itself.
Attack the gunk on the PTC nipple with brake or carburetor cleaner, or a can of Seafoam works wonders. I then used a small screwdriver or drill bit to ream out the crud in the passages. The smallest size drill bit in my kit will fit through the vacuum hose passage. Keep at it until you can see clear through both ports, and there is no crud sticking to the inside. I used about 1/2 a can of carb cleaner on mine - it really wasn't as clogged as I've seen pictures of some of them.
Coincidentally, pouring a small bit of Seafoam down the tubes into the PTC nipple every 20,000 miles or so would not be a bad thing at all to help keep the passages clear.
At this point, you can replace the PTC nipple back into the hose. I used a small flathead screwdriver to push down the rubber seal into the hose - go around the entire thing and you shouldn't have problems getting it back in and getting a good seal.
Step 12: Reattach the PTC and turbo hose, connect the lines and electrical connector back into the tube, and then replace the remaining components missing from your car. Push the airbox back into the holder tab, and then seat it down on the other two mounting tabs. Re-attach the hoses, the MAF end first, then the intake hose to the front of the car, and finally the air pump hose (if you've got one). Reinstall the battery, connect the positive cable first, then negative. Lastly, replace the idle control valve and hoses, then put the cover back on top. Give all of your hoses a good tug and make sure they're nice and secure.
NOW! Cross your fingers, and start the engine. When it fires to life, you'll instanly feel rewarded for a job well done
All in all, between losing parts, screws, breaking hoses, running to parts stores, and getting taken away from it a few times to do other things, it took me about 8 hours. If I were to do it again, and be more organized and less distracted, I could easily do it in 4-5 hours now that I know where everything is.
My suggestion if you have more than 100K miles, just do it, don't waste time testing it.
Just finished my PCV Job and I would like to share some tips and pictures with the rest. Symptom: leaking Rear Main Seal but.......at the end there was no clogging of my PCV at all, so I have the RMS replaced by my indy because it is such a big job.
Since my car was driven on mostly highway (60%) and city driving (40%) is usually more than 10 miles, and also since I changed my oil twice a year (every 5K), there is virtually no clogging of the PCV at all. All the orifices have some deposit but the clog is about 5%. So I ended up with a brand new PCV system and a write-up for you guys!
Get the PCV Kit for your car from "FCP Groton". Allow 3-4 hours of work!
Since mine is a Non-Turbo, there are minor different designs compared with Turbo Models. In addition, I will point to areas of possible problems for people.
- Read the above write-up for Turbo. - Copy Radio AM FM channels, disconect battery for safety. - Remove electrical connections to Throttle and Idle Valve - Remove these 2 hoses (my vacuum hose is brittle so I replaced it) - The PCV connection to elbow: turn it Counter-Clockwise (when viewed end on, similar to opening a bottle cap) a bit, it will come off the plastic Elbow.
- Remove large clamps holding the Elbow and remove the Elbow from the Air Mass Meter and Throttle Intake. The manifold is now attached only by: throttle cable, wiring to fuel injectors.
- When removing vacuum connections, watch for the Rubber Vacuum Plugs, they can be knocked off and difficult to find.
- De-pressurizing the fuel system by releasing the shrader valve, about 10 cc of gasoline will come out here. Re-install the blue cap. - To disconnect Fuel line (which is flared fitting if you are familiar with home plumbing system), 17-mm wrench of the large nut and 14-mm (or 9/16") wrench on the fuel rail. - Slightly move the fuel line a bit to ease removal of the Intake Manifold.
- The Intake Manifold has 3 Upper bolts and 4 Lower bolts. Remove the 3 Upper bolts using 10-mm socket with swivel and telescoping magnet. Do NOT remove the 4 Lower Bolts, loosen them only (Do NOT remove them).
- Underneath the Intake Manifold, there are two (2) 12-mm bolts holding the Manifold and Engine Oil Dipstick. - I use a piece of wood as a "bridge" to rest the Intake Manifold to avoid straining the driver side connections (throttle cable, wiring to fuel injectors etc.)
- The Oil separator has 2 bolts. The short rubber hose to the engine block uses 2 clamps (torx). - As mentioned in the other write-up. Make a note of the hose connections so you do NOT get mixed up. Also attach the hoses and clamps on the Oil separator before installing the Oil separator. NOTE: For the clamps: I use a Ceramic Tile Nipper but I file the edges smooth to avoid sharp edges cutting through the clamp. Alternatively, you can use the Pliers that Sprinkler System Installers use.
- Remove the old gasket, clean the mating surfaces using a rag and paint thinner (or mineral spirits) to wash off the gunk.
- Note for all installations: use a small dab of grease around hoses, elbows etc., this will allow smooth installation without tearing the hose or damage to the connections.
- Install new gasket. I apply a bit of grease to help hold the gasket in place during installation. NOTE: Now remove all 4 Lower Bolts, then loosely install them with ONLY 3 turns to allow room for the Intake Manifold to go in. Watch the passenger's side of the Intake Manifold, it can hit the Upper Radiator Hose near the thermostat!
- Do NOT forget to re-attach the small vacuum hose attachment on the pass side of the Intake Manifold. Then snake the Rubber Hose through the Manifold between the 3rd and 4th Intake Space. Re-install the Intake Manifold taking care NOT to damage the gasket. Tighten all 7 bolts. Do NOT forget the 2 bolts underneath the Manifold.
- Re-attach Fuel Line, Intake Elbow, Electrical Connections, Vacuum Hoses, Rubber Plug (if you knocked it off!).
- Connect battery. Prime the fuel system by turning key in Ingition to II position (without starting engine) a few times to prime the fuel pump.
- Start engine, watch for any fuel leak at the flared fitting. Test drive the car.
- Re-program the radio.
cn90 1998 V70 102K miles 60% highway 40% city driving (more than 10 miles each trip)
WONDERFUL!! I like your detailed and honest explanations, and particularly the photo annotations (and beer).
Suggestions from my (one) experience.:
- I used long extensions from underneath too, but by the end of the process, I realized that even I, with my big fat hands, could more easily get to BOTH bolts under the intake from above. Spend some time trying different approaches from above with a box-end wrench, at least for the bracket bolt (the dipstick bolt is pretty easy to get to with a couple of long extensions, but I ended up tightening it from above too).
- A magnetic pick-up tool is also an absolute necessity. No problem at all fetching the manifold bolts out, or putting them back in (push them away from the magnet with a screwdriver). And if you drop one, just fish around with it for a few seconds. There no doubt are more durable ones, but at two bucks, get a few: http://www.harborfreight.com/cpi/ctaf/d ... mber=38392
- This went considerably faster for me, and I bet the main reason was tools: magnetic pick-up, wobble extensions in particular. For instance, there was definitely no need to remove the radiator hose. With your write-up, the job will go faster for others, as well.
- a stubby 1/4" ratchet and 7mm socket will make removing the intercooler hoses and the air intake hose (which you called the turbo hose) a good deal easier.
- (directed not at you and at no one in particular) when you find some aspect of a job taking a *%$# of a long time, ask yourself afterwards, or ask others, what tools would have made it easier. There usually is a tool for that.
- Yes, those Oetiker clamps are annoying. But they DO stay put, unlike screw clamps (sometimes), and so they are a good choice for hoses that you can't get to easily to tighten them up. The FCP PCV kit includes them, and it's easier to crimp them before you install the parts in the car, and here's a tool that does it well: http://www.harborfreight.com/cpi/ctaf/d ... mber=38496
- I actually am not an employee or stock-holder of Harbor Freight.
- No need to bend the metal fuel lines. There are only two clips holding them in place: one with Torx screws on top of the cam cover, and the other with a 10mm bolt on the back of the engine (not hard to reach from above). Remove the clips and the lines flop free.
- Another tip for keeping bolts and nuts from falling out of the socket as you remove or install them is to use some of this wonderful putty called "Blu Tack" (or a knock off like "Thumb Tack") which is available at drug-stores. Put a bit of it on the lip of the socket and you won't have to pray quite so hard for the damned thing not to fall off. I like your duct-tape application, by the way!
- Else-web-where, people say not to take the PTC off the intake pipe. But I did (by mistake, in removing the hoses from it), and like you I had no problem re-installing it. I used tiny tools to poke the under-side of the grommet back in. You don't want a vacuum leak there, so if it looks sketchy (as well it might if there has been oil around it) consider using some silicone sealant or creative zip-tie solution to pull the PTC against the pipe.
- Your happy, greasy thumbs-up says it all. Great work and thanks again. Please let us know in a few weeks exactly how this job has changed the symptoms that prompted it.
A friend and I had previously cleaned the PTC ports (with hose still in the car) and replaced the hose from the top of the engine down to the oil separator, which had blown a hole in it and was shooting out oil everywhere. In doing that (it was really cold), we snapped the plastic line to the left side of the intake manifold clean off, and had to jury-rig an extension for it. Turns out I'll be using this extension again, as that same hose has blown off again.
Aside from that, nothing in the PCV system in this car had ever been replaced before I owned it. Everything was messy and brittle as all heck - the fat hose snapped into several pieces as I was trying to pull it out.
I don't have a picture of the holes in the block (I coulda sworn I did, but it's not on the camera card). They actually weren't too clogged, I shoved a wire brush through all of them and reamed out what junk I could, but there wasn't really anything clogging the holes. To be honest, the oil separator didn't seem too clogged.
My pressure WAS completely gone (I think) until I blew off the vacuum hose to the PTC again. Now it's back again, but in much less volume. You could clean the MAF if you wanted to; I set mine inside the house to keep all the ridiculous amounts of pollen from destroying it.
I could instantly tell that my car felt happier to drive and accelerate. It felt like it's not being held back by much anymore.
'98 S70 T5 218K miles 2012 Chevy Cruze LT 6MT
A learning experience is one of those things that says, "You know that thing you just did? Don't do that."
You mention that the pressure is back. Does this mean you still have smoke coming out your dipstick? What about the smoke coming out your tailpipe?
I have BOTH of these symptoms and I'm expecting the PCV replacement to eliminate (or dramatically reduce) these emissions. The dealer also told me a while back that I needed to replace the PCV - at a cost of ~$700.
Great job. I think whoa gets a hefty commission from Harbor Freight. I'm going to collect a few additional tools before starting in on this. Tools for getting in at odd angles seem a must. After reading both PCV system tutorials I'm feeling more confident that I can do this.
One last question. Did you tighten the intake manifold bolts to torque specifications? Just wondering about the bolts in the hard to get to places. These sound like they are difficult to tighten.
The smoke is back somewhat at the dipstick, especially with the A/C running but I think it's just because I blew off the vacuum line and haven't had a chance to fix it yet. When it was connected, there was no pressure at all. No blue smoke out the exhaust, and it seems less grumpy in the mornings, but it would really only do that after it sat for a few days without being driven. That oil-burning could be an entirely different cause on mine, but it's 12 years old anyway.
I didn't torque any of them, just tightened to the point where the wrench starts resisting turning, and then about 90 degrees past that. The spec is 14 lb/ft, which isn't much. I checked for leaks afterwards with a Benzene torch, and there were none around the gasket.
'98 S70 T5 218K miles 2012 Chevy Cruze LT 6MT
A learning experience is one of those things that says, "You know that thing you just did? Don't do that."
The PCV job didn't help much with oil consumption on my car, and it did not improve the (relatively mild) symptoms of dipstick smoke and filler-cap oozage. It's too early to say for sure, but I think replacing the valve stem seals did wonders for all of that.
This is a job that I probably need to take care of this summer on my 850. I have a very small oil leak probably from the RMS and a bit on the valve cover. Hoping to get a better look at the RMS leak when I change the oil and install the poly transmission bushing this weekend.
When people say 'smoke from the dipstick,' how much are we talking? I get a very small amount, mostly only visible in the right lighting. I've also seen people say to put a balloon on the dipstick to see if it will inflate - I tried that and pretty much nothing. Thoughts?
Anyhow, excellent write-up and it will definitely be my first resource when I'm ready to tackle this! Well done!
I've read on the Volvospeed site about problems with the FCP Groton PCV kit. The posts were a few years old and said the person needed to do the PCV again after six months because some of the hoses in the kit failed. Not sure this is a problem with the kit.
For those individuals who replaced the PCV in the past, any problems with any of the kits that are available? If you have experience with multiple kits can you describe the differences.
I have the kit from FCP Groton. I need to buy another kit for a second car so any advice is welcome.
On the other site someone that did the PCV job said they spend time cleaning out the passages in the engine. Justin, did you spend time cleaning the interior passages? I don't see much in your tutorial on this. The individual said they used a stiff wire and a drill (roto router) to clean out the passages in the engine. Would a shop vac help to suck out the loose stuff without sucking all of the oil out.
Like I said, got the kit, but have seen a few issues come up here, like the smoke not going away after the job. Someone else couldn't start their car after the job. Been 80K since last PCV job so I know I need to do it. Just waiting for things to settle out a bit here.