How to Read & Understand Volvo Diagnostic Codes

How to retrieve and understand Volvo diagnostic codes across all Volvo models.

Read Codes on ’92-95 Volvo 850

Looking for 1996 to 1998 Volvo Trouble Code Help?

Or Read codes on 1999+ Volvos?

We in the 850 family who have 1996 and 1997 model years have it easy. Check Engine light comes on? We just plug in our code readers and a magical system called OBD-II tells us what code(s) are causing the CE light. Same with 1998 model year Volvos, like S70, V70 and XC70 models. Then after that, codes expanded from the OBD-II to include Volvo-specific codes that OBD-II readers cannot retrieve, although many overlap in meaning.

Read Codes on a 1999+ Volvo?

Guess what? OBD-II readers will read the OBD-II codes these cars set. The OBD-II port is physically the same. I used my reader on my ex’s 2004 V70R — lower driver’s side interior, near your left knee — and it correctly reported OBD-II codes. Here is the specific 1999+ Volvo DTC code page for “the rest of the story”.

How to Read Codes

To start, the Ignition key must be in position II, engine not running. Open the hood. Locate the two diagnostic sockets just inboard of the washer fill cap. The “A” connector (shown above) has a jumper that is stored in the lid of the “A” diagnostic connector. The jumper is used for both diagnostic connectors.

What Codes You Can Get

Listed below is the information retrievable from the various connections.

  • A1 Transmission
  • B1 Climate Control
  • A2 Fuel System
  • B2 Cruise Control
  • A3 ABS
  • B5 SRS
  • A5 TCU (Transmission Control)
  • B6 Power Seat
  • A6 Ignition System
  • A7 Combined Instrument

How to Use the Jumpers

Normally “Check Engine Light” information will be found in A2. Put the jumper into A2 and push the black button for one second. Count the red LED light as it blinks back information, blink, blink, pause, blink, blink, blink, pause, blink, blink, is an example of the response you would receive. 2-3-2 would be the code retrieved, now push the button again for one second, again count the blinks, keep checking for codes until one of them repeats, this means you have read all the codes.

Clearing Codes on your 850

Now to clear the codes, push and hold the button for 6-7 seconds, release and as soon as the LED comes on push and hold the button for another 6-7 seconds. Now push the button for one second and read the codes again, you should get 1-1-1 (no faults).

You Must Read All Codes before Clearing

Turn the ignition off and then start the car, the check engine light should be out. It is always a good idea to check for codes, clear them and then drive the vehicle to see if they return before replacing parts. The transmission can ask the check engine light to be turned on, so if you try clearing A2 codes and they wont go away try reading the transmission (A1), clear them , and then go back to A2.

A1 — Transmission
111 No faults found
112 Solenoid S1 short circuit to battery voltage
113 Transmission control module (TCM) fault
114 Program selector open circuit or short circuit to supply
121 Solenoid S1 short circuit to ground or control module fault
122 Solenoid S1 open circuit
123 Solenoid STH short circuit to battery voltage
124 Mode selector faulty or short circuit to ground
131 Solenoid STH open/short circuit or control module fault
132 Transmission control module(TCM) fault
134 Faulty load signal from ignition control module
141 Oil temperature sensor short circuit to ground
142 Oil temperature sensor open circuit
143 Kickdown switch faulty or short to ground
211 Transmission control module (TCM) fault
212 S2 solenoid short circuit to battery
213 Throttle position (TPS) signal too high
221 S2 solenoid short circuit to ground or control module fault
222 S2 solenoid open circuit
223 Throttle position (TPS) sensor signal too low
231 Throttle position (TPS) sensor sporadic
232 Speedometer signal missing
233 Incorrect speedometer signal
235 High Oil temperature
245 Open or short in Torque limiting circuit
311 RPM signal from transmission missing
312 RPM signal from transmission faulty
313 Faulty signal from gear position sensor (PNP)
321 Shift time too long
322 Incorrect gear ratio
323 Lock up slips or is not engaged
331 Short circuit to battery in SL circuit
332 SL solenoid open or control module fault
333 SL solenoid short or control module fault
A2 — Fuel System
111 No faults detected
112 Fault in ECM
115 Injector 1
121 MAF sensor signal
123 ECT signal
125 Injector 2
131 RPM sensor signal missing
132 Battery voltage
135 Injector 3
143 Front knock sensor signal
145 Injector 4
153 Rear HO2S signal
154 EGR system leakage
155 Injector 5
212 Front HO2S signal
214 RPM sensor signal sporadic
223 IAC valve opening signal
225 A/C pressure sensor signal
231 Long term fuel trim, part load
232 Long term fuel trim, idling
233 Long term idle air trim
241 EGR system flow malfunction
245 IAC valve closing signal
311 VSS signal
314 CMP sensor signal
315 EVAP system
325 Memory failure
335 Request for MIL lighting from TCM
411 TP sensor signal
413 EGR temp sensor signal
414 Boost pressure regulation
416 Boost pressure reduction from TCM
432 Temperature warning level 1
433 Rear knock sensor signal
435 Front HO2S slow response
436 Rear HO2S compensation
443 Three way cat. Efficiency
444 Acceleration signal
451 Misfire cylinder 1
452 Misfire cylinder 2
453 Misfire cylinder 3
454 Misfire cylinder 4
455 Misfire cylinder 5
513 Temperature warning level 2
514 Engine cooling fan low speed signal
521 Front HO2S Preheating
522 Rear HO2S Preheating
531 Power stage group A
532 Power stage group B
533 Power stage group C
534 Power stage group D
535 TC control valve signal
541 EVAP valve signal
542 Misfire more than one cylinder
543 Misfire at least one cylinder
544 Misfire more than one cylinder, three way cat damage
545 Misfire at least one cylinder, three way cat damage
551 Misfire cylinder 1, three way cat damage
552 Misfire cylinder 2, three way cat damage
553 Misfire cylinder 3, three way cat damage
554 Misfire cylinder 4, three way cat damage
555 Misfire cylinder 5, three way cat damage
A3 — ABS
111 No DTC set
121 Left front wheel sensor, faulty signal 122 Right front wheel sensor, faulty signal 123 Left rear wheel sensor, faulty signal 124 Right rear wheel sensor, faulty signal 40 km/h
322 Right front wheel sensor, irregular >40 km/h
323 Left rear wheel sensor, irregular >40 km/h
324 Right rear wheel sensor, irregular >40 km/h
411 Left front wheel inlet valve, open/short
412 Left front wheel return valve, open/short
413 Right front wheel inlet valve, open/short
414 Right front wheel return valve, open/short
415 Rear valve open/short
421 Rear wheel inlet valve circuit, open/short
422 Rear wheel return valve circuit, open/short
423 Traction control system valve, open/short
424 Pressure switch for TRACS, faulty or short circuit
441 Control module faulty
442 Pump pressure low
443 Pump motor, electrical or mechanical fault
444 No power supply to valves in hydraulic unit
A6 — Ignition
111 No DTC set
112 Control Module fault
123 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor (ECT) from Control module missing or faulty
131 Engine speed (RPM) sensor signal missing
142 Control Module Fault
143 Knock sensor (KS) missing or faulty
144 Ignition control module load signal missing
154 EGR system flow too high in system
214 Engine speed (RPM) sensor signal missing sporadically
224 Engine Coolant Temperature sensor (ECT) signal missing or faulty
234 Throttle Position (TPS) signal missing at idle
241 EGR system flow too low in system
243 Throttle Position sensor (TPS) signal missing at idle
311 Vehicle speed signal missing or faulty
314 Camshaft Position sensor (CMP) signal missing or faulty
324 Camshaft Position sensor (CMP) signal missing sporadically
411 Throttle position sensor (TPS) signal from fuel injection system missing or faulty
413 EGR temperature sensor signal faulty
432 Control module box temperature too high level 1
433 Knock sensor (KS) signal missing or faulty
513 Control module box temperature too high, level 2
A7 — Combined Instrument (Trip Computer)
112 Fuel gauge short circuit
113 Fuel gauge open circuit
121 Temp. sensor interval too short
122 Temp. sensor interval too long
123 Digital output 48 pulse short circuit to supply
131 Digital output 12 pulse short circuit to supply
132 No RPM sensor signal
133 Tank signal to trip computer short to supply
B1 — Electronic climate control
111 No fault
121 Outside temperature sensor shorted to ground
122 Outside temperature sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
123 Driver’s side interior temperature sensor shorted to ground
124 Driver’s side interior temperature sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
125 Passenger’s side interior temperature sensor shorted to ground(earth)
126 Passenger’s side interior temperature sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
131 Driver’s side air duct temperature sensor shorted to ground(earth)
132 Driver’s side air duct temperature sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
133 Passenger’s side air duct temperature sensor shorted to ground(earth)
134 Passenger’s side air duct temperature sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
135 No signal from engine coolant temperature sensor
141 Faulty signal from driver’s side temperature selector switch
143 Faulty signal from passenger’s side temperature selector switch
145 Faulty signal from function selector switch
151 Signal from fan speed sensor missing or too high
152 Signal from fan speed sensor shorted to earth
211 Driver’s side damper motor position sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
212 Driver’s side damper motor position sensor shorted to earth
221 Passenger’s side damper motor position sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
222 Passenger’s side damper motor position sensor shorted to earth
231 Ventilation damper motor position sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
232 Ventilation damper motor position sensor shorted to earth
233 Floor/defrost damper motor position sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
234 Floor/defrost damper motor position sensor shorted to earth
235 Recirculation damper motor position sensor open circuit or shorted to 12 volts
236 Recirculation damper motor position sensor shorted to earth
311 Driver’s side damper motor shorted to earth or shorted to 12 volts
312 Passenger’s side damper motor shorted to earth or shorted to 12 volts
313 Ventilation damper motor shorted to earth or shorted to 12 volts
314 Floor/defrost damper motor shorted to earth or shorted to 12 volts
315 Recirculation damper motor shorted to earth or shorted to 12 volts
321 Driver’s side damper motor active too long
322 Passenger’s side damper motor active too long
323 Ventilation damper motor active too long
324 Floor/defrost damper motor active too long
325 Recirculation damper motor active too long
411 Blower fan seized or drawing excessive current
412 Driver’s side interior temperature sensor inlet fan shorted to earth
413 No control voltage at driver’s side interior temperature sensor inlet fan
414 Driver’s side interior temperature sensor inlet fan seized
415 Passenger’s side interior temperature sensor inlet fan shorted to earth
416 No control voltage at passenger’s side interior temperature sensor inlet fan
417 Passenger’s side interior temperature inlet fan seized
418 No control signal to blower fan power stage
419 Faulty diagnostic signal from blower fan power stage
420 ECU fault in program memory
511 Damper motor limit position self-adjustment not carried out
B2 — Cruise Control
111 No faults detected
112 Abnormal speed signal
122 Speed has not exceeded 22mph or no speed signal
211 Control module malfunction
212 Malfunction in the circuit to the vacuum pump or regulator
B5 — SRS
111 No fault detected
112 Sensor module fault
127 SRS lamp open/short circuit
211 Drivers airbag short circuit
212 Drivers airbag open circuit
213 Drivers airbag short circuit to ground
214 Drivers airbag short circuit to supply
221 Passenger airbag short circuit
222 Passenger airbag open circuit
223 Passenger airbag short circuit to ground
224 Passenger airbag short circuit to supply
231 Left belt tensioner short circuit
232 Left belt tensioner open circuit
233 Left belt tensioner short circuit to ground
234 Left belt tensioner short circuit to supply
241 Right belt tensioner short circuit
242 Right belt tensioner open circuit
243 Right belt tensioner short circuit to ground
244 Right belt tensioner short circuit to supply

Pocket Data Booklet

One of the best tools that you can buy is the “Pocket Data Booklet”, TP 0302207, this 3 by 5 inch book contains all the codes plus all the various specifications, torque specs, it’s just loaded with technical data that can be useful for maintaining your vehicle. 1-800-25-VOLVO, last listed price $15.95.