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hard cold start

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1996 - 2004 S40
1996 - 2004 V40
jowiliam
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Year and Model: v40 2004
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hard cold start

Post by jowiliam » Thu Nov 08, 2018 1:59 pm

Hi there,
First , I’m a mechanic.
My 2004 volvo v40 is hard to start when it’s cold outside (below 6 celcius).
When I start it, the engine (almost) fires up and dies immediately. I try to start it several times and after 4 or 5 times, it starts.
It doesn't help if I touch the gas pedal.
When outside temperature is higher than 6 Celsius, I do not have this problem.
If the engine is hot, I do not have this problem even if it's cold outside (below 0 deg.)
I have changed the coolant temp sensor, cleaned The IAC, verify for fuel pressure regulator issue, and it did not help.
I’m suspecting the MAF or its connection.
I tried to mesure voltage on the MAF connector and I only have some voltage when engine is running.
All 3 pins are grounded if key is turned on without the engine running.
I was expecting at least a 12V on one of the 3 wires…
Is it normal to have no voltage going to MAF connector until the engine runs?
Anyone here can test his or her vehicle to help me figure out if this is a normal condition?
Thanks in advance.

jimmy57
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Re: hard cold start

Post by jimmy57 » Thu Nov 08, 2018 2:21 pm

On that car the MAF is not powered until engine begins cranking. You pull the system relay and jumper 30 to 87 pins in relay base connector to get the KOEO MAF signal.

There was a reflash of the ECM on that car line 13-14 years ago that is still on current vida under Software/Advanced. I do not remember if there is a way to check if it has had the update.

jowiliam
Posts: 7
Joined: Tue Nov 16, 2010 11:16 am
Year and Model: v40 2004
Location: Canada
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Re: hard cold start

Post by jowiliam » Thu Nov 08, 2018 3:10 pm

Thanks for your answer jimmy.
That makes me think my MAF is ok because when I test it while the engine is running, it gives me normal readings.
I'll take a look at this update you are talking about.

Now I have to do more investigation to find the problem.

Any thoughts about what could be the problem?
tks!

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alschnertz
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Re: hard cold start

Post by alschnertz » Fri Nov 09, 2018 3:46 am

I would check the fuel pressure.
Should be around 44 psi.
'60 PV544, '68 220, '70 145S, '86 745T, '95 854T, '01 S40
'84 Prelude
'06 MPV
'13 Ford Focus SE

jowiliam
Posts: 7
Joined: Tue Nov 16, 2010 11:16 am
Year and Model: v40 2004
Location: Canada
Canada

Re: hard cold start

Post by jowiliam » Fri Nov 09, 2018 2:34 pm

Thanks for your input alschnertz.

I have worked on the car today.
It really doesn't look like a fuel delivery problem.
The problem is getting worst. It is sometimes difficult to restart the engine when it is hot. It skips a little bit while starting with engine hot.

The ECM finally throws some codes:
P0117 Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Low Input,
P0335 Crankshaft position sensor A circuit,
P0336 Crankshaft position sensor Range / performance,
On DiCE: ECM78 engine speed sensor signal missing.

If I clear the codes and make a road test, they all reappear together.

Freeze frame on P0335 shows that it occurs at 0Km/h so that tells me that it is probably related to the starting problem.

New condition: During road tests, while WOT, above 4k RPM, The engine hesitate and even cut the fuel at some moments. DSA light illuminates when it skips.

Now, Check engine light and DSA light remains on.
I have no way to check DSA/ABS codes...

I have checked wires and connectors for both crankshaft and coolant sensor, as well as other engine sensors on my way.
Resistance on crankshaft sensor is 350 ohms.
Coolant sensor is new.

I hope that it will lean to some input from you guys!

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alschnertz
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Re: hard cold start

Post by alschnertz » Fri Nov 09, 2018 6:48 pm

I realize you're not getting codes for the following, but
I would inspect the coils with a magnifying glass and look for "burn" marks or cracks.
Same with the wires, though they aren't so easy to visually inspect.

FWIW, my '01 has had a hesitation issue at WOT since I got it 8-years (75,000 miles) ago.
I've just lived with it even though I know it's wrong. 3/4 throttle is ok.
It's not as much fun, but it's still reliable transportation.
'60 PV544, '68 220, '70 145S, '86 745T, '95 854T, '01 S40
'84 Prelude
'06 MPV
'13 Ford Focus SE

jimmy57
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Re: hard cold start

Post by jimmy57 » Fri Nov 09, 2018 9:43 pm

Check voltage drop of main relay. Go between batt + and the Green wire at one of the injectors with engine running. Should be under 0.5V. If it is higher then replace the fuel system relay. It is in engine bay but I haven't touched an s/v40 in a long time so I can't remember which one.

jowiliam
Posts: 7
Joined: Tue Nov 16, 2010 11:16 am
Year and Model: v40 2004
Location: Canada
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Re: hard cold start

Post by jowiliam » Sat Nov 10, 2018 11:23 am

Jimmy57: Voltage drop is 0,31V I have tried another relay and get the same voltage drop. It looks normal.

alschnertz: Coils, spark plugs and wires have been changed with good quality parts less than 10 000 km ago. They can be bad again but I doubt they are part of the problem. Misfire codes aren't present and usually the computer is very prompt to code misfire.
Hesitation at WOT are absolutely anormal and are dangerous as the engine completely cuts like if you pull off your feet of the gas pedal.

jowiliam
Posts: 7
Joined: Tue Nov 16, 2010 11:16 am
Year and Model: v40 2004
Location: Canada
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Re: hard cold start

Post by jowiliam » Sun Nov 11, 2018 3:36 pm

Today, -3deg. The car did not start. No DTC.
Tried to start it for 15 minutes. It sometimes almost started. The engine was getting a little bit warmer each time. Then, the engine started several times but died after 1 or 2 seconds. When giving some gas immediately after starting, the engine dies like if the injection was cutting. Put multimeter on MAF, 0,45V while starting. Rased to 1,45V when engine almost start. MAF looks good.
After several attempts, It started. Moved the car in the garage,
Checked fuel pressure: 39psi idling, 45 psi when fuel regulator vacuum unplugged.
Removed crankshaft sensor, visually inspected it, put multimeter on it, still 350 ohms.
Rechecked Coolant temp sensor. Value within specs...

What can make the injection cut when the engine is cold?

jowiliam
Posts: 7
Joined: Tue Nov 16, 2010 11:16 am
Year and Model: v40 2004
Location: Canada
Canada

Re: hard cold start

Post by jowiliam » Tue Nov 20, 2018 7:35 am

Updates
I have made several tests during the past week.
I was able to use a scantool to see live data while the (no-start) problem occurs.
When the engine doesn’t start, all the engine sensor signals are going to the ECM. While cranking, the crank sensor is around 275 RPM so I guess both P0335 and P0336 are not for my no-start issue. Maybe not true codes… All sensors (MAF, CTS, MAP, … ) give normal readings to the scantool.

There were two codes stored:
DSA-222. (Related to anti-spin) Witch I find NO info about… any help would be appreciated.
GLA312 siren internal battery fault

I have erased DTCs after all.

I’ve began to think of an ignition problem. Removed the spark plugs and oh surprise! Engine fouled!! The ECM never showed a misfire code… I was sure I was working on an injection problem…
Also: The plugs installed were NGK BKR6EIX-11 witch is NOT the right plugs (shame on me!). These plugs (xxx-11) are pre-gapped to 0,044” and this gap is too far. That car needs BKR6EIX witch are pre-gapped to 0,032”.

If any of you guys have an idea of what could lean to have run the car with these plugs for 10 000 km, please let me know. Would it have put too much strength on coil-packs and bring them to death…?

So, I let the combustion chambers evaporate and put some (good) old plugs, coils and wires that I had in the shop. Cranked the engine, fired-up and died immediately. Fouled again. So the problem wasn’t there.
I took a closer look to the coil connections and found some nude wires near from the #3 cyl. coil connector.
I unwrapped the loom all the way down to the end of the engine cover, until the wires were soft and good looking. The loom was disintegrating badly. The coil wiring was cracked at several places and wires were very close from each other here and there. I fixed that with shrink tube and electrical tape. Put a new loom on everything and tried to start the engine. At this moment the engine was at room temperature so not as cold as when the problem occurs. The engine fired up, idled a little irregular, maybe caused by previous fouling (maybe not). I got the car out and let it cool down to make a cold start the next morning.

The next morning, before all, I wanted to make sure that my IAT was not giving me these fouling issues. So before I start the engine, I depressed gas pedal about 1/3 to let some air enter the intake in case the IAT was stuck closed. The engine started, but not as well as I would expect. Put it in Drive, and RMP dropped a little bit with hesitation. Took a ride to warm it up, engine runs great except for WOT acceleration. Still the same hesitation issue at WOT. I think that (maybe) both problems origin from the same cause and I suspect bad ignition (I’m not sure) I read on other posts that some people have similar hesitation issue with DSA light flashing related to coil connections or ignition problem.

If any of you have experienced similar issues that imply both WOT acceleration hesitation with DSA light flashing AND hard cold start, Your input will be greatly appreciated.

Again, I inspected the coils, plugs and wires for any trace of arcing or any irregularity. All parts look new as they have been changed 10K km ago. I bought new plugs (the good ones now!) and installed them.

This morning, -3deg, the engine fired up perfectly.
Although, I’m not sure to have solved the problem. Time will tell us.

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